Adding collaborators to github

collaborators Whenever you are doing a project in a group there is a need to compile the tasks completed. The same is true for software industry. However the process of merging different modules are often very completed and a tedious job. The complexity of this tack can be minimized using GitHub.

If you don’t have a GitHub account you can create it freely here.

Next you first need to “push” the project to a repository. I have discussed that in a previous blog. You can reference that here.

Now to add collaborators, you will need

  • A project repo.
  • The GitHub account of the collaborators

Go to “settings” section via the navbar.


Then you will see collaborators button on the side bar.


Git might ask for your account password and if it does simply enter that. 

Then enter the username/email of the collaborators and click the “add collaborator” button.


An request will be sent to then and on accepting they can contribute to your repo.

Also, remember that there is difference between collaborator  and a contributor.  A collaborator is someone who has been granted write access to the main repository of a project.

A contributor is a person who isn’t explicitly a member of your organization or personal account, but wants to contribute to your project via pull requests and creating new issues. A contributor can add issues to your Waffle board but won’t be able to move cards, whereas collaborators have full access and are able to take any actions on the board. If your GitHub repository is public, then anyone can be a contributor to your Waffle project. Private repositories in a user account are an all-or-nothing deal: either someone has full read/write access (i.e., they’re a collaborator) or they have no access.


Pushing a project on GitHub

Recently I was involved in  a project and the first thing that i had to do was push the task completed to a Git repository. For those of you who don’t know GitHub is a web-based Git or version control repository and Internet hosting service. It is mostly used for code. It offers all of the distributed version control and source code management (SCM) functionality of Git as well as adding its own features.

To push a exiting project to git you need a GitHub account. This can be created here for free. Then you need to download GitHub from desktop from here. The the following steps must be followed.

  • Right click on the folder where the project is and click on “Git bash here”

Screenshot (59)_LI.jpg

  • Then this window will appear


  • Then type the command “git init”


  • Then type “git add .”


  • Then create a new repository in git using the “New Repository” Button on git hub. There it will give you a url of the form”.
  • Then type the following two commands in git bash
git remote add origin
git push -u origin master

Your project will then be pushed to git.


Routing Methods in Laravel

If you have any idea on computer network, we know that there are basically two types of routing methods, the POST method and the GET method. Laravel however also supports additional four routing methods i.e. PUT, PATCH, DELETE & OPTIONS. All these routing methods are explained below,

  • POST method:

POST is most-often utilized to create new resources. In particular, it’s used to create subordinate resources.

  • GET method:

GET method is used to read (or retrieve) a representation of a resource. In the “happy” (or non-error) path, GET returns a representation in XML or JSON and an HTTP response code of 200 (OK). In an error case, it most often returns a 404 (NOT FOUND) or 400 (BAD REQUEST).

  • PUT method:

PUT is most-often utilized for update capabilities, PUT-ing to a known resource URI with the request body containing the newly-updated representation of the original resource.However, PUT can also be used to create a resource in the case where the resource ID is chosen by the client instead of by the server.

  • DELETE method:

DELETE is used to delete a resource identified by a URI.HTTP-spec-wise, DELETE operations are idempotent. If you DELETE a resource, it’s removed On successful deletion, return HTTP status 200 (OK) along with a response body.

  • OPTIONS method:

OPTIONS returns available HTTP methods and other options.

However, knowing the first two is enough for building a basic website. Also, most present day browsers have not yet supported the other methods and are integrated for future use.

All Laravel routes are defined in your route files, which are located in the routes directory. These files are automatically loaded by the framework. The routes/web.php file defines routes that are for your web interface. These routes are assigned the web middleware group, which provides features like session state and CSRF protection. The routes in routes/api.php are stateless and are assigned the api middleware group. 

For most applications, you will begin by defining routes in your routes/web.php file.

MVC controller in Laravel

The Model-View-Controller (MVC) architectural pattern separates an application into three main components: the model, the view, and the controller.

These three components work in unison and have a distinct objective. The MVC controller is also used by many other frameworks such as Grails and . The task of each framework is given below,

  • Model:

Model objects are the parts of the application that implement the logic for the application’s data domain. Often, model objects retrieve and store model state in a database. For example, a Product object might retrieve information from a database, operate on it, and then write updated information back to a Products table in a MySql database.

However, in case of small applications there can be a logical implementation rather then a physical implantation. This is because the complexity of the query is low and can be included in the controller itself.

  • View:

The view is the UI that the user sees and interacts with. It can also be considered as an abstraction provided to the used hiding the complexity behind each operation. These are linked to the model in the sense that they display the data model returns. For eg. the list operation model returns all the data and the view simply displays the data.

Laravel uses blade to integrate HTML and PHP. The view is saved with an extension “.blade.php” to signify that blade is being used.

  • Controller:

Finally, Controllers are the components are responsible for handling user interaction, working with the model, and ultimately selecting the appropriate view to render that displays UI.

letsstartmvc.blogspot.com_what is mvc

In an MVC application, the view only displays information; the controller handles and responds to user input and interaction and manipulates data via a model.


Installing Laravel

Installing Laravel is easy, but these are a few things needed. First, you will need a XAMPP server and a MySql database setup. Though many databases are supported MySql is the default choice and the most easy to handle manipulate. You can download XAMPP and MySql via following links.



I advice to download the latest versions as everything will be automatically setup. Else verify you have the following:

  • PHP >= 5.6.4
  • OpenSSL PHP Extension
  • PDO PHP Extension
  • Mbstring PHP Extension
  • Tokenizer PHP Extension
  • XML PHP Extension

These are built-in in the latest version of XAMPP. 

Next you will need composer preinstalled. To check if composer is present or not you can simply type, composer -ver in the command prompt. I present the version will appear.

The minimum version required is 1.0.3.

If composer is not installed, you can install it via this link. After downloading composer you need to add it to your PATH.

Note: Close your current terminal. Test usage with a new terminal: This is important since the PATH only gets loaded when the terminal starts.

So, a total of three things are required:

  1. XAMPP Server
  2. MySql Database
  3. Composer

The last step is to run the following command (in command prompt),

composer global require "laravel/installer"

This will begin the download and laravel will be set up.

Once, the process completes, to make a new project simply run the following command (in command prompt or terminal)

laravel new project

A project with project name “project” is created.

Prerequisites for learning Laravel

Now i have moved a lot further into learning Laravel, as discussed in the last post it is a PHP framework which makes development a lot easier and faster as compared to when using core PHP.

I am using Laravel 5.4, with PHP 7.1.0 and MySQL (for database management purpose). Firstly I have to say, it takes some time getting used to using a framework and may seem to be a bit confusing at first but things change as we move further with it.

However, we need to understand a lot of things before diving into using Laravel. The first prerequisite is of course knowing PHP. You MUST have at least a basic knowledge of PHP as Lavarel only creates a template to write your code, writing code is still your part. However before that you must understand the concepts of programming as a whole, this is because there are certain terms used in Laravel which can be understood by one having a sound knowledge of programming.

Also, as this a web development platform, the basics of web technology must be known such as routing and the MVC (Modal View Controller) workflow. A picture of a very simple routing script in Laravel is given below.

Screenshot (54).png

I will get more into the MVC workflow and routing modules in my upcoming blogs. This was only an short introduction on what you would need to get started with Laravel.

Learning Laravel

Screenshot (53)
I had learned using PHP as a semester optional training in my fourth semester. PHP is clean and easy to use but making a large project using it can be hectic and time consuming. That is a reason why Laravel was developed, to speed up and reduce the complexity of project development process.

Firstly, I had a simple concept about languages and that is only when frameworks can help me: a framework makes the development simpler but you know the language basics.

Talking about PHP, it is a very simple language. It was projected to be simple and fast. If you want a language complicated or filled of dependencies, PHP is not your best choice.

PHP has the power to do a lot of things in a single line, so, if your framework of choice do the same thing in 3 or 4 lines, use the native PHP way. But you’ll ask me your framework do the same job but much better, using OO, or with beautiful code. Remember you must do the thing and make your project work. Of course the OO programming is the recommended way and you must use it, to make you like easier. These tasks are easily maintained with the help of a framework like Laravel.

Mixing Music with Meditation

As a music lover I have always loved to experiment with it. Also, recently I started meditating so I decided to try mixing the two. The result was an even more powerful tool which has proven to be very effective at least in my case. However, not every type of music works. I mostly tried it with soft calm music and the result was impressive.

Meditation is not something exclusive for gurus and their fans. Many people use meditation to clear their minds, stay mentally fit and get some stress off. If you are doing hard sport, meditation is a part of your daily routine as well as it is for a manager in a stressful environment. Just don’t call it meditation but “time to calm down” and you hit the point.

However there are some differences between normal songs and meditation music. The first difference is that meditation music is always quite longer than the usual 3 to 5 minute song. Also meditation music have find slow repetitive rhythm patterns which is not common for a usual song. Third difference is that the instruments used have either a slow attack phase or low loudness. You won’t find much loud percussion nor sudden violent flutes and violins but a slow soft tune. Also, nature sounds are often incorporated with meditational music.

I have found this easier to use and more fun as compared to ordinary music and I recommend everyone to give it a try.

Working with a team… opportunities and pitfalls

Recently I got an internship opportunity at Techlekh services which is a small organization residing in DWIT complex. I have to work with a team here, which is kind of a new experience. I had never earlier worked with a team before (in an actual working environment) so this is a completely new experience. It has now only been a week or so that we have stated the project and I have already learned quite a bit.

First to list the advantages, which are many, I have learned a whole lot of new tips and tricks on programming which I had no idea about before. I also got the opportunity to meet and learn more about new people and explore domains which I would never had done otherwise. The work productivity has also increased as there are 3 brains solving a particular problem. Technically, if should multiply by three times but that is not always the case, but it is definitely better than a single brain solving the problem.

Talking about the pitfalls, the only thing I have realized that is kind of negative is how you develop yourself with in the team. This is because it is not you who has to succeed, it is the entire that that has to.

I wrote a story…

As i recall i had written a blog on the power of literature. Today I got a chance to write a small story and here it is.

In this mighty world, in a small town lived there a teenager; confident, young and smart he was. He had achieved a lot in many aspects of his life and was living a happy, confident life. He was moving with the pace of time. Life had bought many changes and he had accepted them all. Everything was going very well, till he met a girl; a short heighted, fun loving girl who became his friend.

They were different. Different in all factors that describes a person. They had different interests, hobbies and a different way of living life. The boy was shy, studious and closed where as the girl was more open, friendly and adventurous. They were different but understood each other well. The mighty laugh of the beautiful girl would enlighten his day and he would do any and everything he could to spend time with her. Only her presence would affect him so much that he would forget
what he was up to. He was slowly falling in love, though he was not aware of it. Soon many started talking about their relationship. Many suspected a different bond between the two, though both denied to it.

Soon, the boy realized the unique sense of love and care he had for her. He thought of conveying his love to her a lot of times but failed. Everything was going smoothly until they were separated; their classes had changed so the boy wasn’t able to spend that amount of time he wanted to. He now thought of new, yet silly ways of seeing her, as her view was what he wanted; a view that would enlighten his day.

However he knew he wasn’t what the girl wanted as her partner. He was different, yet he loved and cared her. He should have stopped there but he didn’t. He was never able to ignore the strong feeling he had for the girl. That was surely soon going to hurt him, he knew that fact but was helpless. Because of so many things he was going through he decided to convey his feeling to the girl. So one fine weekend, he met the girl and was about to tell everything that he had in his heart.

They walked a long way tougher and then came the moment where they had to separate to get to their destination. “This is the moment he thought”, which was right to convey his feelings. However, he had no other choice. The response he received was what he had expected. However, the girl too knew about his feelings the boy had towards her. He got the answer. Though, he knew what was coming he was still heartbroken. He spent the whole day crying and cursing the lord who created him.
He now hated what he was. He now wanted to change but soon realized that it would do no good. As love that demands change is not going to succeed. So, he boy decided to forget her but failed miserably. The more he would try to forget her, the more he would remember her and the memories would hurt him even more. So, now has decided to move with the pace of life. He now doesn’t want to change himself but he still loves her. He is living in a hope that he would live his dream which he knows will not i.e. he still have some hope in a corner of his heart.

He is still hurt but time has suppressed the pain. He is confused as he doesn’t know what he should do to be happy. As being happy is only what he wants. His mood swings like a pendulum; a moment he is happy, the next overexcited and the next depressed. He living his life with the support of a dying hope, hoping to life a dream he once saw.

I will keep posting such stories, articles more often as these help me learn a lot about literature and life.